By Christian Puff
Biosystematic reports at the Rubiaceae have a protracted culture on the Institute of Botany in Vienna. inside of this relations the Anthospermeae, and particularly its African and Madagascan individuals, are of specific curiosity due to a number of features of their evolution: I) Perfection of anemophily inside an differently approximately completely zoophilous kinfolk; 2) transitions from hermaphrodity to polygamy and at last dioecy; three) differentiation from huge and long-lived shrubs to short-lived herbs; four) adaptive radiation from humid to seasonally dry, fire-exposed and xeric habitats. besides the fact that, morphological variety associated with sexual differentia tion, modificatory plasticity, and eco-geographical polymorphism have for a very long time hampered our realizing of the relationships between those African Anthospermeae. therefore, it was once primary to place detailed emphasis on box observations and to hold out a number of experiments with cultivated vegetation as well as the research of an incredible herbarium fabric. the writer, hence, conducted vast box paintings, usually lower than very adversarial stipulations, and coated so much African nations from Ethiopia to Southern Africa and two times visited Madagascar. during this means a large number of knowledge was once amassed at the staff in admire to germination and progress shape, vegetative and reproductive morphology, anatomy and biology, embryology, karyology, crossing relationships, phytochemistry, distribu tion and ecology, etc.
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Extra info for A Biosystematic Study of the African and Madagascan Rubiaceae-Anthospermeae
The latter soon develop adventitious roots at the basal nodes (Fig. 13 d) and eventually their basal parts also become part of the rhizome system. Up to an age of ca 3 years, the primary root system and the basal part of the primary shoots are still easily discernible, but in older plants the rhizome system becomes so extensive that primary shoots and roots are no longer distinct. The root system becomes strictly homorhizous; the rhizomes themselves become ± woody, and innovation shoots originate mainly from the slightly woodier, proximal portions of the plagiotropic shoots.
Burchellii (ESTERHUYSEN 20092). g-h C. scabra subsp. scabra, g PUFF 800914-6/1, h ESTERHUYSEN 10961 . - b-d, g critical point dried, all others herbarium material. All x 700 4. Leaves 49 Fig. 20. Leaf sections and upper epidermis of Anthospermum. ibityense (PUFF 800730-1/2). b A. bicorne (PUFF 8009\3-4/2). c A. dregei subsp. dregei (PUFF 780810-211) . d A. pachyrrhizum (PUFF 810930-211). eA . J- g A. esterhuysenianum (PUFF 800924-3/ 2), upper epidermis,fin the midrib region, g between midrib region and margin.
1. 2. Habit and Growth Form Analyses 29 A. paniculatum, for example, has shoots which terminate in a closed inflorescence (Fig. 29 b). Innovation takes place from below the inflorescence. The vegetative, woody body is never extensive and some plants are perhaps better classified as subshrubs rather than (proper) dwarf shrubs. Also the growth form of A. esterhuysenianum approaches that of a subshrub. ) produce ± prostate innovation shoots near their base. These shoots apparently never reach a great age, remain relatively thin and become woody only in the basal portions.
A Biosystematic Study of the African and Madagascan Rubiaceae-Anthospermeae by Christian Puff