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Easy to implement the same application on a variety of server and workstation types. Middleware helps in resolving communications and connectivity issues. Main reason for adopting middleware is to solve the impedance problem, which is, clients storing and manipulating data in different ways to servers. There are three broad types of middleware connections: • Synchronous client server- Clients sends a request and waits for the server to respond. • Asynchronous message passing - The clients send a message to server and forget about it.

The kernel can set up address spaces to protect processes from one another and to provide them with their required virtual memory layout. An address space is a collection of ranges of virtual memory locations, in each of which a specified combination of memory access rights applies, such as read-only or read-write. A Copyright © Genetic Computer School, 1999 Page 46 process may not access memory outside its address space. Application processes normally execute in distinct address spaces. In addition to memory-based protection, many processes have a hardware mode register whose settings determines whether privileged instructions can be executed, such as those used to determine which protection tables are currently employed by the memory management unit.

It does this by presenting applications with general, problem-oriented abstractions of the resources in a distributed system. Examples of such abstractions are communication channels and processes - instead of network processes. * In an open distributed system, the distributed operating system is implemented by a collection of kernels and servers (server processes). There is no clear dividing line between the distributed operating system and applications that run on top of it. This chapter focuses on the part of a distributed operating system that acts as an infrastructure for general, network-transparent resource management.

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Distributed Systems by Genetic Computer School

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